Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures

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National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific and Technical Information Branch, For sale by the National Technical Information Service] , [Washington, D.C.], [Springfield, Va
Liquids -- Acoustic properties., Sound -- Speed -- Measure
StatementAllan J. Zuckerwar, David S. Mazel.
SeriesNASA technical paper -- 2464.
ContributionsMazel, David S., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific and Technical Information Branch.
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14663659M

Measurements of sound speed versus composition ning of the transmitted pulse and at the beginning in LOX-LN2 mixtures under controlled conditions of the first reflection. The time between the square to such a precision that changes in LN2 content pulses is measured with the by: 3. The sound speed in liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid nitrogen (LN2), and five LOX-LN2 mixtures was measured by an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique at temperatures in the vicinity of C, the boiling point of N2 at a pressure of I atm.

The transfer of liquid oxygen (LOX) from a storage vessel to a rocket engine generally requires the use of a pressurizing gas like nitrogen at a typical pressure of psi. The condensation of ga Cited by: 3.

The transfer of liquid oxygen (LOX) from a storage vessel to a rocket engine generally requires the use of a pressurizing gas like nitrogen at a typical pressure of by: 3. Summary of most recent sound speed measurements in LOX at reference conditions, T and P = 1 atm.

= ^ 10 Appendix Sound Speed in Liquid Nitrogen-Liquid Oxygen Mixtures Versus Temperature The sound speed is plotted and tabulated against temperature for each of the seven compositions used in.

This paper reports accurate measurements of the speed of sound in compressed pure nitrogen and a synthetic ternary mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon with a composition close to that of natural dry air.

Description Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures EPUB

The data have been measured by a double-path-length pulse-echo technique and cover the temperature ranges between and K for nitrogen and between and K for the dry Author: Karsten Meier, Stephan Kabelac. SPEED OF SOUND MEASUREMENTS IN GAS-MIXTURES AT VARYING that the speed of sound measurements was performed with low standard deviation.

Thus, one can FIGURE 2. Speed of sound in nitrogen (N 2) – oxygen (O 2) mix as a function of oxygen concentration. The line represents speed of sound calculated from equation (3) and theFile Size: KB. The speed of sound in three phases of matter is determined by focusing a pulsed laser into a gas, liquid, or solid to produce a sharp sound pulse.

The time for this sound to travel a known distance through these materials is then measured to determine the sound velocity.

These measurements use electronic detection of sound with microphones and detection of light with photodiode or. Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures / By Allan J. Zuckerwar and Langley Research Center.

Topics: Liquid nitrogen., Liquid oxygen., Cited by: 3. An apparatus for speed of sound measurements at cryogenic temperature is described. • Speed of sound measured in liquid methane from K to K up to 10 MPa. • Original speed of sound measurements obtained at K for pressures up to 10 : G. Cavuoto, S.

Lago, P.A. Giuliano Albo, D. Serazio. The sound speed of a water‐air mixture depends on the pressure, the void or mass fraction of air, the frequency of the sound wave, and, if surface tension effects are included, on bubble radius.

The admixture of small volume fractions of air causes a dramatic lowering of the sound speed by nearly 3 orders of by: mixtures of 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) with methylpyridine isomers at different temperatures, in previous paper [1] measurements of densities and speeds of sound have been reported.

Details Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures PDF

The molecular interactions in pure and binary liquid mixtures have been studied by measuring speeds of sound by several researchers []. Velocity of sound in nitrogen at 00 C. Resonator I Pressure I W ob •. I W at m/sec m/sec I RI Ril Rm I In this and following tables W ob. means the average value obtained from several observdtions and W the velocity of sound corrected for.

The speed of sound refers to the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave propagating through a medium. The speed of sound in air at 20 o C is m/s which translates to 1, km/h.

The speed of sound in gases is proportional to the square root of the absolute temperature (measured in Kelvin) but it is independent of the frequency of.

Get this from a library. Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures. [Allan J Zuckerwar; David S Mazel; United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Scientific and Technical Information Branch.].

A new equation of state for the thermodynamic properties of natural gases, similar gases, and other mixtures, the GERG equation of state, is presented in this work. This equation is an expanded version of the GERG equation.

GERG is explicit in the Helmholtz free energy as a function of density, temperature, and composition. The equation is based on 21 natural gas Cited by: We calculate the low-frequency speed of sound in periodic mixture of liquid and gas.

Using the plane wave method developed for photonic crystals,^1 we obtain exact analytical formulas for the. Speed of Sound in Various Gases. All for 20 o C, 1 Atm, audible frequencies. Extrapolated from tables in the reference below.

Consult that reference for other conditions. A thermodynamic property formulation for standard dry air based upon available experimental p–ρ–T, heat capacity, speed of sound, and vapor–liquid equilibrium data is presented.

This formulation is valid for liquid, vapor, and supercritical air at temperatures from the solidification point on the bubble-point curve ( K) to K at pressures up to by: High-Temperature Tunnel to measure the ';oundspeed of liquid oxygen (LOX) as it is transferred from a storage vessel to the tunnel combustor at pressure of about psi.

The sound speed is known to be a reliable indicator of contamination of LOX by pressurized gaseous nitrogen (Ref. 2), which will be used to effect the transfer.

Sound speed measurements in liquid oxygen-liquid nitrogen mixtures / (Hampton, Va.: NASA Langley Research Center [For sale by the National Technical Information Service], ), by Allan J. Zuckerwar and Langley Research Center (page images at HathiTrust) The sound.

The speed of sound in air has been measured along isotherms for a “standard air” mixture ( N2+ O2+ Ar) in the gas and liquid phases at pressures to 14 MPa. A cylindrical resonator was used in the vapor and supercritical gas phases, and a time-of-flight system was used for measurements of the liquid phase.

Data were obtained for the liquid phase at 90, Cited by: The speed of sound through nitrogen is about m/s, and the speed of sound through oxygen about m/s, so a mixture of both would be about, I guess,(m/s + m/s) ÷2 = m/s.

Defined amounts of nitrogen are continuously fed from a nitrogen vessel via a mass flow controller (MFC, Bronkhorst), and defined amounts of fuel, either ethanol or decane, are fed with a high precision high pressure syringe pump (Teledyne ISCO D, ± MPa & p max = 50 MPa).

Nitrogen and fuel mix at a T-junction and leave the junction into the micro capillary made of fused by: 2. in which c ℓ and c m are the linear speeds of sound in the pure liquid and in the mixture, respectively, ω is the angular frequency of the pressure wave, ω 0 the effective resonance angular frequency of the bubbles and b the damping parameter of the bubble oscillations.

For gas bubbles, the phase speed and attenuation predicted by this expression (which can readily be generalized to a Cited by: v/m) in a two phase mixture (liquid + vapor) is difficult. Liquid level measurement techniques Continuous level measurement Superconducting wire level device Ultrasonic level measurement Signal travels at sound speed ≈ m/s for LHe Level ~ resonant frequency.

Velocity of Sound - Online Calculator - An online Speed of Sound calculator Velocity of Sound Formulas - Calculate velocity of sound - sonic velocity - in gases, fluids or solids Velocity of Sound in Air - Velocity of sound in air at temperatures from to o C ( to o F) at standard atmospheric pressure - Imperial and SI Units.

Sound Speed in Liquid-Gas Mixtures' Water-Air and Water-Steam SUSAN WERNER KIEFFER Department of Geology, University of California, Los Angeles, California The sound speed of a two-phase fluid, such as a magma-gas, water-air, or water-steam mixture, is dramatically different from the sound speed of either pure Size: KB.

The mixture model may be used to calculate the properties of mixtures generally within the experimental accuracies of the available measured properties. The estimated uncertainty of calculated properties is % in density, % in the speed of sound, and 1% in heat by: An alternative approach may be adopted from Kieffer 'Sound Speed in Liquid-Gas Mixtures: Water-Air and Water-Steam', given the following constraints.

there are two (or two predominant) components to the mixture; the liquid and gas phases are in equilibrium, and there is negligible mass transfer between the phases owing to gas becoming dissolved or liquefied. model predicts a very low speed of sound: in fact the density of'the mixture is almost that of the liquid and its compressibility that of the gas, and the sound speed ceff in the mixture is thus lower than both the speed in the pure liquid c1 and in the pure gas cg (for example, in diethyl-ether c1 - m/s, cg - m/s and ceff N m/sCited by: 4.Is there a general mixing rule for estimating the speed of sound of a gas mixture, given the speed of sound in the components?

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(where x's are the molar concentrations) works well when the molar masses are similar (for example, oxygen and nitrogen) but very poorly when the molar masses are very different. For an ideal gas the sound speed.Eric W. Lemmon's research works with 6, citations reads, including: Equations of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of Binary Mixtures for Helium-4, Neon, and Argon.